The Controversies Regarding the Grace and the Genesis of Atheist Humanism

The humanism arising from the Christian concept of man falls into crisis with the emergence of atheistic humanism of 19th and 20th centuries (Feuerbach, Bakunin, Marx, Nietzsche, Sartre). Nédoncelle and Maritain agree on identifying the roots of this new approach in the problem of the relationship between nature and grace which arose in Patristic and Scholastic theology.

However, it seems to be rather Luther´s negative view of man that is responsible for the anthropology which underlies atheistic humanism.